Daniel V. Sola, R.G.
Mr. Sola, a senior hydrogeologist with over 30 years of environmental consulting experience, joined Hydro Geo Chem in 2016. His experience includes hydrogeological evaluation, remediation, contaminant fate and transport, natural attenuation, expert witness work and environmental review. He has extensive experience with VOCs, creosote/PCP, PCBs, and metals, including Cr(VI). He worked with the University of Minnesota on innovative technology research projects including phytoremediation and direct hydrogen injection for chlorinated VOC treatment. In 2015, he designed well networks and monitoring programs for coal combustion residual disposal facilities under the new 2015 CCR rule.
-B.S. Geology, Michigan Technological University, Houghton. 1982
-Adjunct Faculty, University of Minnesota, (2006 Solid and Hazardous Waste)
Registered Professional Geologist, Arizona Registration No. 30445
OSHA 40-Hour HAZWOPER - 1992; 8-hr Refresher - 2016
Industrial Site Remediation:
• Phoenix, Trichloroethylene Plume: Evaluated plume configuration and designed and tested groundwater extraction wells for a hydraulic containment system for large TCE plume in central Phoenix. Worked with modelers from other firms, representing various RPs, to design plume containment system. Evaluated source areas along Salt River and evaluated long term water level trends to understand historical TCE transport.
• Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant (TCAAP) Deep Aquifer: Senior Hydrogeologist: A multi‑phased groundwater investigation and remediation. Project included extensive multi-phased definition studies of 5 mile long trichloroethene plume, remediation design, aquifer characterization, etc. Designed and implemented numerous pumping tests in fractured bedrock and alluvium aquifers as part of design and performance monitoring of 17 well, 2,800 gpm remediation system from 1986 through 1990. Responsible for ongoing performance and assessment of the system from 1987 through 2002. Senior Peer reviewer for 3D modeling work by US Army contractor (Weston). Part of team engaged in litigation preparation in the 1990’s and ongoing Agency negotiations through 2011. Developed additional statistical tools based on Mann-Kendall trends for long-term evaluation of well network and remediation.
• Tucson Airport: Responsible for review and oversight of long term groundwater investigation and remediation for a trichloroethylene plume under the Tucson, AZ. airport. Project involved evaluating complex fate and transport in multiple, interconnected aquifers.
• Building 103 TCAAP: Senior hydrogeologist and project manager at shallow aquifer trichloroethene plume at site within TCAAP. Included ongoing operation of groundwater extraction trench and VOC treatment system. Also conducted pilot test of Hydrogen Release Compound ™ to attempt to remediate source area. Assisted University of Minnesota in developing a research demonstration of direct hydrogen injection using gas permeable membranes for in-situ remediation as part of DOD grant.
• Building 502 TCAAP: Project Manager, hydrogeologist. Conducted extensive Geoprobe investigation within large operating ordnance manufacturing plant. Identified multiple DNAPL source areas and conducted pilot test of soil vapor extraction and air sparging systems.
• Bell Lumber Superfund Site: Project Hydrogeologist: Remedial Investigation and Remedial Action at Bell Lumber and Pole facility in New Brighton, Minnesota. Included characterization of listed RCRA wastes from wood treating process. These included dense and light Non‑Aqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL) contamination and dissolved PCP contaminant plumes. Responsible for hydrogeologic design of groundwater remediation system. Project involved testing and design of an innovative in-situ remedial technology consisting of hot water injection to mobilize and extract dense non‑aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) from the aquifer. Responsibilities included hydrogeologic design of pilot test and full-scale system, computer modeling, agency negotiations for special variances and technical representative at public meetings.
• Wood Treating: Project Hydrogeologist: Environmental investigations and remediation of a group of saw mills and wood treating facilities in Michigan and Wisconsin (Connor Forest Industries). Site included pentachlorophenol remediation in soil and groundwater from dip-treating treating of dimensional lumber for sap stain control.
• Pentachlorophenol plume remediation: Principal Hydrogeologist: Evaluation of long term remediation and natural attenuation of PCP and petroleum plume at a refinery complex along Mississippi River. Plume exists in a fractured bedrock aquifer and has been under active pump and treat for over 20 years. Current work includes conducting DNA analysis to determine if degrading microorganisms are present in the aquifer system. Also evaluating redox and geochemical conditions to demonstrate natural attenuation is active and sufficient to allow shut down of remedial system.
• Thiokol Corporation Sites, New Jersey: Senior Hydrogeologist for chlorinated solvent plume and source area investigations and alternatives analysis at three former rocket motor and component manufacturing and testing sites in New Jersey. Sites involved both Alluvial aquifers and fractured bedrock aquifers. Included utilizing municipal wells for plume control, and source area remediation with soil vapor extraction.
• Motorola 52cnd Street Superfund Site, Phoenix: Project manager. Consultant to regulators evaluating extensive VOC plume and remediation in central Phoenix. TCE plume in both alluvium and fractured bedrock aquifer system. Remediation ongoing since early 1990s.
• University of Minnesota, TCF Bank Stadium: Senior Hydrogeologist: For the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and response action plan for soil and groundwater cleanup of former wood treating plant and rail road yards located at site of proposed football stadium. Assisted University in negotiating and implementing remedy with the State under the voluntary program, but also consistent with USEPA “Superfund” and RCRA hazardous waste rules. Characterized over 20,000 tons of RCRA “F-listed” wastes for thermal treatment and de-listing. Numerous issues involving RCRA, storm water management, analytical chemistry, QA/QC, risk assessment, and treatment technologies were involved in this high profile project.
• Elf Atochem, Chemical Manufacturer: Senior Hydrogeologist for RCRA Facility Investigation and remediation at epoxidized soy oil manufacturing plant in Minnesota. Study identified extensive VOC plume and perchloroethene DNAPL in shallow aquifer. Designed and implemented first RCRA natural attenuation study in Minnesota to quantify anaerobic and aerobic degradation of VOCs in support of passive remedial system.
• Aluminum Smelting Company (client confidential): Assisted client with variety of RCRA, State, and county issues related to releases and storage of hazardous wastes and hazardous substances. Client was under investigation for alleged major RCRA violations with substantial fines. Conducted soil investigation on Site perimeter to identify potential releases of lead and PCBs. Assisted with waste characterization and TCLP testing and differing interpretations of “hazardous” by County and State.
• Former Control Data Corp. Facility, Minnesota: Senior hydrogeologist for investigation and remediation of a trichloroethene and 1,1,1 trichloroethane plume at a former computer manufacturing facility. Plume contaminated several aquifers and interacted with a stream. Evaluated alternative and installed a multi-level remediation system. Provided expert witness support to successfully allocate costs between client and off-site source.
• Phytoremediation of Trichloroethene Plume, Minnesota: Project Manager: Investigation and remediation of trichloroethene plume in shallow aquifer and wetland system. Negotiated innovative and cost saving agreement with State to shut down pump and treat system to research “phytoremediation" capabilities of wetland ecology. Study conducted as Master’s Thesis project by University of Minnesota with funding from the client. Monitored Natural Attenuation remedy, based on natural phytoremediation, approved in 1999.
• Semi-Conductor Manufacturer, California: Project Hydrogeologist: Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study of a trichloroethene plume at former Synertek semiconductor plant in Santa Clara, CA. Responsible for subcontractor management, supervision of drilling and sampling, well specifications, data management, hydrogeologic interpretation, alternative analysis and remediation design, and agency negotiations.
• Auto Component Manufacturing Facility, Bingley U.K.: Proved hydrogeological review of historical operations and investigation efforts to demonstrate the presence of tricholorethene DNAPL and likely clean-up scenarios. Information used as part of land transaction agreement.
• Synertek, Santa Clara, CA: Investigation and remediation of VOC plume at semi-conductor plant in Silicon Valley.
• Coal Combustion Residuals (CCR), New Mexico: Principal Hydrogeologist: Designed and installed groundwater monitoring networks for four CCR units for an APS coal-fired power plant. Work included interpreting the complex federal rules finalized in 2015 by USEPA. The rules establish monitoring requirements patterned after the RCRA Subtitle D landfill rules including statistical analysis of background and downgradient geochemistry.
• Metropolitan Council Environmental Services – East Bethel, MN: Senior Hydrogeologist/Project Manager: Completed preliminary study to evaluate suitability of East Bethel for utilizing groundwater infiltration for the recovery of treated municipal water. Developed a conceptual model of the groundwater/surface water regimes and assessed both infiltration capacity and groundwater mounding potential. In the a subsequent phase, the project expanded to include groundwater modeling of specific candidate sites using MLAEM, pre-design work for construction of the recharge basins, and a wastewater treatment plant.
• Metropolitan Council Environmental Services - Blue Lake Plant, MN: Expert Witness/Groundwater Modeler: Assisted MCES as a hydrogeologist/expert witness in litigation related to a failed pumping well based flood protection system. Subsequently, completed series of large pumping tests to re-evaluate the fractured-limestone aquifer at the Site and completed an analytic-element groundwater model in support of a new groundwater extraction system for flood protection. The eleven well flood protection system performed as designed in the 2011 flood.
• Metropolitan Council Environmental Services – Twin Cities, MN: Hydrogeologist: Prepared groundwater modeling simulations, using the MCES’ Metro Model, of several groundwater recharge scenarios across the Twin Cities Basin. Identified general levels of recharge necessary to mitigate long term drawdown concerns in areas projected to have high groundwater use.
• Large Scale SDS permit, Southern Minnesota: Senior Hydrogeologist/Project manager: Completed a hydrogeologic study and SDS permit for a large housing development near Prior Lake, Minnesota. The development will ultimately consist of over two hundred homes connected to community septic systems and widely distributed mounds. Worked closely with the MPCA to streamline the permit process and address difficult geological issues related to low permeability soils, groundwater mounding, chemical limits, and interaction with wetlands and surface water.
• Environmental Assessment Worksheet and Environmental Impact Statement: Senior Hydrogeologist: Scoping EAW for expansion of the Flying Cloud Airport in Eden Prairie, Minnesota. Issues included evaluating water supply, fuel and chemical storage, deicing chemical runoff, and groundwater interaction with Minnesota River. EAW was a scoping document for a mandatory EIS.
• City of Windom: Senior Hydrogeologist: Evaluated long term trends in pumping and groundwater supply issues to assist City in planning future wells and long term pumping needs. Also working with nearby Rural Water Associations to develop water supplies and identify well sites.
• TMDL, Minnesota: Hydrogeologist supporting completion of numerous Total Daily Maximum Load projects in Minnesota. Provide evaluation of groundwater/surface water interaction at the watershed scale.
• Industrial Water Supply: Designed and evaluated pumping test and water quality sampling data for an industrial supply well in Nogales, Mexico. Issues were long term sustainability, inorganic water quality, and a short time frame to allow plant to begin operations. Worked with local consultant to manage regulatory and language issues.
• Sedona WWTP: Evaluated the water balance of three, operating, earthen waste water treatment lagoons. The client needed to quantify the water lost through the sides and bottom of the lagoons to evaluate the integrity of the clay liner and earthen sides of the lagoons. The project included designing a monitoring well network, determining pan-evaporation rates, and conducting a flow-net analysis of the flow through and beneath the liner system.
• Capital Region Watershed District, St. Paul, MN: Completed a groundwater model and hydrogeologic study of St. Paul neighborhood experiencing basement flooding issues. Used Stack’s MLAEM analytic element model. to understand relationship shallow groundwater and topography in the river bluff setting to help CRWD refine storm water infiltration guidance for future development in the area. Was able to relate flooding to the bedrock structure along historical Mississippi terrace.
• City of Wausau, Wisconsin Modeling: Completed a Modflow finite-difference model of the City of Wausau municipal well field in support of designing a pumping scheme to control VOC plumes in the area. Included modeling the movement of the plume under the Wisconsin River. The final plan effectively contained the plumes and protected unimpacted wells.
• River Falls Landfill, Wisconsin: Project Manager: Remedial Investigation, Feasibility Study and Remedial Construction at the River Falls Landfill, Wisconsin. Project included evaluation of vinyl chloride movement in Karst hydrogeologic system Utilized local University students and City employees to help control costs. Landfill cap and gas venting system completed in 1995. Project required extensive public contact and expert testimony/litigation support.
• Chippewa Falls Landfill, Wisconsin: Senior hydrogeologist for large PRP group. Included evaluating DNAPL from historical dumping in trenches at the landfill. Designed hydraulic containment system in fractured bedrock aquifer to protect nearby residential area. Evaluated fracture traces patterns and worked with geophysical firm to understand fracture flow regime. Worked extensively with varied PRP group to maintain focused and consistent project goals.
• Hazardous Waste Landfill, Minnesota: Senior Hydrogeologist: Remedial Design/Remedial Action at the 75‑acre former Municipal and Hazardous Waste Landfill in Andover, Minnesota. Project responsibilities included design and assessment of an eight well groundwater extraction system, design of slurry wall and DNAPL monitoring systems for “vault” containing RCRA and other hazardous wastes. This was the first landfill to enter the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency Landfill Program in 1996.
• Waste Management Kettleman Hills, California: Geologist and QA officer for high-profile dioxin-like PCB congener study of soil and vegetation surrounding hazardous waste disposal facility. Developed QAPP and was laboratory liaison for low detection limit PCB congener analysis following WHO guidance. Managed field crews and WM staff during field work, with USEPA and State representatives present for all activities. This was the first conger study if its kind at an industrial facility.
• Waste Management Landfill, Iowa: Monitoring network design and ongoing reporting in low permeability glacial terrain. Included applying statistical methods for evaluation long term trends in organic and inorganic parameters. Statistical complications include high turbidity samples causing anomalous results and naturally occurring inorganic in the fine-grained tills.
• Tomah Municipal Sanitary Landfill, Wisconsin: Senior Hydrogeologist: Natural attenuation evaluation. Prepared expert report on degradation pathways and sources of chlorinated solvents for cost allocation negotiations among responsible parties. Especially distinguishing between trichloroethene and 1,1,1 trichloroethane sources. Evaluated degradation of trichloroethene and vinyl chlorinated solvent plume and demonstrated distinct anaerobic and aerobic degradation zones within the aquifer. Work supported cap and long term monitoring design.
• Former Municipal Landfill, Minnesota: Implemented a pilot test of in situ oxidation (permanganate injection) to attempt remediation of chlorinate plume entering adjacent wetland. Results were inconclusive but utilized novel sampling techniques to demonstrate the root zone of the wetland provided adequate breakdown of solvents and was able to shut down groundwater treatment system.
• Twin Metals Minnesota, Environmental Impact Statement: Principal Hydrogeologist. Part of multidisciplinary team presently developing and completing a hydrogeologic study for major copper-nickel-PGM mine planned for northern Minnesota. URS is the lead for the Environmental Impact Statement work on the project. Role is coordinating data and interpretation gathered from exploration, geotechnical, and hydrogeological work. Ultimate goal is producing a well calibrated hydrogeologic model of a thick sequence of low permeability igneous and metamorphic rock formations in an ecologically sensitive area.
• Mining Environmental Impact Statement: Senior Hydrogeologist. Assisted the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in completing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a proposed iron ore mining, processing and steel facility in northern Minnesota. The project proposed an open pit taconite mine, adjacent stockpile areas, and the construction of a crusher, concentrator, pellet plant, plant ‘direct reduced iron’ plant, and a steel mill. Specific role was evaluating groundwater flow patterns, geologic hazards, and mine flooding history. Also reviewed groundwater model and assisted in groundwater/surface water, wetland, and wild rice evaluations.
• Mine Pit Flooding Hydrogeological Evaluation: Completed a conceptual model and field study to evaluate basement flooding in small town near a former iron mining pit in northern Minnesota. Over time the mine pit had filled to above the basement levels of nearby homes. Installed a piezometer network and conducted a pumping and pilot dewatering test to demonstrate feasibility of constructing an under drain to control the problem. To aid in public confidence and understanding, the test was conducted to actually eliminate basement flooding during the test.
• Mine Closure Plan and EAW: Hydrogeologist: Developed a mine closure plan and EAW for aggregate mining operation in Southern Minnesota. Issues included the interaction of the mine pit lake and runoff with the Minnesota River ecosystem. Other issues included visual impacts along designated Wild and Scenic River, drainage and wash water handling, wetlands delineation, archeology, and restoration.
• Limestone Mining, Iowa: Designed multi‑level bedrock monitoring system for cement kiln dust disposal area located in active limestone mine. The work included preparing a Hydrologic Assessment covering regional and local groundwater flow, mine dewatering data evaluation, and groundwater chemistry, in support of a long‑term monitoring plan for the facility. At issue was how groundwater inflow would affect the kiln dust disposal area after mining ended. Unusual features included close proximity of the pit to the Mississippi River and the presence of unmapped underground mining stopes that had significant impact on the flow regime.
• Gravel Pit Recharge, Minnesota: Evaluated use of former sand and gravel mine for long term discharge of treated water from a groundwater remediation system. Work included evaluating the long term behavior of the pit, including potential for overflow, under a continuous discharge of 4 million gallons per day (2800 gpm). Also responsible for the ongoing assessment of the pit’s performance for over 15 years.
EXPERT OPINIONS AND TESTIMONY IN LITIGATION:
-Employers Insurance Company of Wausau v. Klinke Clothing Care Corporation, Wisconsin, perchloroethylene plume timing and movement (settled).
-Allen and Carrie Betts, et al v. Wauleco, Inc. et al, Wisconsin, Wood treating facility, 2012 (settled).
-Bell Lumber and Pole Company v. U.S. Fire et al. New Brighton, MN, 1996, Insurance recovery action, wood treating (PCP/petroleum) contamination (RCRA, CERCLA) (settled).
-Soo Line v. B.J. Carney. Minneapolis, MN. Cost recovery action, wood treating site contamination.
-Bell Lumber and Pole Company v. MacGillis & Gibbs Co. New Brighton, Minnesota. Cost recovery action, wood-treating (PCP) contamination
-Tyler Pipe v. Bantivoglio et. al. Bridgeton, New Jersey, Cost apportionment for soil contamination at iron foundry (settled).
-Williams Pipe Line Company v. Bayer Corp. U.S. District Court, Des Moines, Iowa, Petroleum contamination cleanup cost and technical approach.
-Tousely Ford v. Hansen Investments, Ramsey County Minnesota, Soil and groundwater Petroleum and MTBE contamination, (settled)
-Metropolitan Council Environmental Services v Barr Engineering State of Minnesota, Ramsey County, Second Judicial District. Groundwater flow and well design in fractured bedrock aquifer (settled).
-Thomas Knoll v. MTS Trucking Inc. and Midwest Asphalt Corporation. Anoka. MN 2010. MERLA third-party recovery - polyaromatic hydrocarbon contamination. Testimony included interpretation of RCRA definitions pertaining to asphalt-related contamination.
-Control Data Corporation v. S.C.S.C. Corp. et al. U.S. District Court, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1993. Cost recovery and apportionment of VOC plume clean up.
-City of River Falls v. Paul Birchen. River Falls, Wisconsin. Cost recovery action, municipal landfill site vinyl chloride plume, (settled).
-KC1986 Limited Partnership v. Rende Manufacturing et. al. V. Habco Inc., et al. Kansas City, Missouri. Cost Apportionment Action, Chemical Handling Facility.
PUBLICATIONS AND PRESENTATIONS:
“Using Models in Making Environmental Assessments -Technical Primer for Environmental Lawyers.” Proceedings of 5th Annual Environmental Law Institute, Minnesota State Bar Association Continuing Legal Education, April 2009. (author/ instructor).
“A Technical Primer for Environmental Lawyers: What you need to know about groundwater in analyzing surface water issues,” Proceedings of 3rd Annual Environmental Law Institute, Minnesota State Bar Association Continuing Legal Education, April 2007. (author/ instructor).
Solid and Hazardous Waste, CE 4561, Adjunct faculty, University of Minnesota, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department. Spring 2006.
“Degradation of trichloroethylene in wetland microcosms containing broad-leaved cattail and eastern cottonwood” (with Bankston, J.L.; Komor, A.T.; and Dwyer, D.F.) Water Research, Vol. 36, 2002, p. 1539-46.
“A Semi-Passive, Permeable Reactive Barrier for Direct Hydrogen Injection, Utilizing Gas Permeable Membranes at a TCE Site” (with Semmens, M.; Novak; P.; and Holzawski, R.). Presented at 2000 Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP) conference.
“Enhanced Recovery of Oily NAPL at a Wood Treating Site Using the CROW Process” (with Fahy, L.J.; Johnson, L.A.; Horn, S.G and Christofferson, J.L.) Proceedings: HMC/Superfund 1992 Convention. Also presented at 1995 Theis Conference.
“A Graphical Procedure to Enhance Groundwater Contours for a Large, Complex Extraction Well Network,” (for tricholorethene plume remediation evaluation) Abstract in Groundwater, September‑October 1991, Presented as Poster Session at NGWA Conference, October 1991, Washington D.C.
“Packer Testing in a Thick Bedrock Aquifer,” (for tricholorethene plume definition) Abstr. in Groundwater, September‑ October 1987. Presented as Poster Session at NWWA Exposition, September 1987, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
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